The History of Florence

Book I

Irruption of Northern People upon the Roman Territories—Visigoths-Vandals-Franks and Burgundians—Huns—Angles in England—Attila—Genseric—The Lombards

State of the Roman Empire under Zeno—Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths—Character of Theodoric—Changes in the Roman Empire—New Languages—New Names—Theodoric Dies—Belisarius in Italy—Totila Takes Rome—Narses Destroys the Goths—New Form of Government in Italy—Narses Invites the Lombards into Italy—The Lombards Change the Form of Government.

Beginning of the Greatness of the Pontiffs in Italy—Abuse of Censures and Indulgences—The Pope Applies to Pepin, King of France, for Assistance—Donation of Pepin to the Pontiff—Charlemagne—End of the Kingdom of the Lombards—The Title of Cardinal Begins to be Used—The Empire Passes to the Germans—Berengarius, Duke of Friuli, Created King of Italy—Pisa Becomes Great—Order and Division of the States of Italy—Electors of the Emperor Created.

Nicholas II Commits the Election of the Pope to the Cardinals—First Example of a Prince Deprived of his Dominions by the Pope—Guelfs and Ghibellines—Establishment of the Kingdom of Naples—Pope Urban II Goes to France—The First Crusade—New Orders of Knighthood—Saladin Takes from the Christians their Possessions in the East—Death of the Countess Matilda—Character of Frederick Barbarossa—Schism—Frederick Creates an Anti-Pope—Building of Alexandria in Puglia—Disgraceful Conditions Imposed by the Pope upon Henry, King of England—Reconciliation of Frederick with the Pope—The Kingdom of Naples Passes to the Germans—Orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis.

The State of Italy—Beginning of the Greatness of the House of Este—Guelfs and Ghibellines—Death of the Emperor Frederick II—Manfred Takes Possession of the Kingdom of Naples—Movements of the Guelfs and Ghibellines in Lombardy—Charles of Anjou Invested by the Pope with the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily—Restless Policy of the Popes—Ambitious Views of Pope Nicholas III—Nephews of the Popes—Sicilian Vespers—The Emperor Rodolph Allows Many Cities to Purchase their Independence—Institution of the Jubilee—The Popes at Avignon.

The Emperor Henry Comes into Italy—The Florentines Take the Part of the Pope—The Visconti Originate the Duchy of Milan—Artifice of Maffeo Visconti against the Family of La Torre—Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan—The Emperor Louis in Italy—John, King of Bohemia, in Italy—League against the King of Bohemia and the Pope's Legate—Origin of Venice—Liberty of the Venetians Confirmed by Pepin and the Greek Emperor—Greatness of Venice—Decline of Venice—Discord between the Pope and the Emperor—Giovanna, Queen of Naples—Rienzi—The Jubilee Reduced to Fifty Years—Succession of the Duke of Milan—Cardinal Egidio, the Pope's Legate-War between the Genoese and the Venetians.

Schism in the Church—Ambitious Views of Glovan Galeazzo Visconti—The Pope and the Romans Come to an Agreement—Boniface IX Introduces the Practice of Annates—Disturbance in Lombardy—The Venetians Acquire Dominion on Terra Firma—Differences between the Pope and the People of Rome—Council of Pisa—Council of Constance—Filippo Visconti Recovers his Dominion—Giovanna II of Naples—Political Condition of Italy.

Book II

The Custom of Ancient Republics to Plant Colonies, and the Advantage of it—Increased Population Tends to Make Countries more Healthy—Origin of Florence—Aggrandizement of Florence—Origin of the Name of Florence—Destruction of Florence by Totila—The Florentines Take Fiesole—The first Division in Florence, and the Cause of it—Buondelmonti—Buondelmonti Slain—Guelfs and Ghibellines in Florence—Guelfic Families—Ghibelline Families—The two Factions Come to Terms.

New Form of Government in Florence—Military Establishments—The Greatness of Florence—Movements of the Ghibellines—Ghibellines Driven out of the City—Guelfs Routed by the Forces of the King of Naples—Florence in the Power of the King of Naples—Project of the Ghibellines to Destroy Florence, Opposed by Farinata degli Uberti—Adventures of the Guelfs of Florence—The Pope Gives his Standard to the Guelfs—Fears of the Ghibellines and their Preparations for the Defence of their Power—Establishment of Trades' Companies, and their Authority—Count Guido Novello Expelled—He goes to Prato—The Guelfs Restored to the City—The Ghibellines Quit Florence—The Florentines Reform the Government in favor of the Guelfs—The Pope Endeavors to Restore the Ghibellines and Excommunicates Florence—Pope Nicholas III Endeavors to Abate the Power of Charles, King of Naples.

Changes in Florence—The Ghibellines Recalled—New Form of Government in Florence—The Signory Created—Victory over the Aretins- The Gonfalonier of Justice Created—Ubaldo Ruffoli the first Gonfalonier—Giano della Bella—New Reform by His Advice—Giano della Bella Becomes a Voluntary Exile—Dissensions between the People and the Nobility—The Tumults Composed—Reform of Government—Public Buildings—Prosperous State of the City.

The Cerchi and the Donati—Origin of the Bianca and Nera Factions in Pistoia—They Come to Florence—Open Enmity of the Donati and the Cerchi—Their First Conflict—The Cerchi Head the Bianca Faction—The Donati Take Part with the Nera—The Pope's Legate at Florence Increases the Confusion with an Interdict—New Affray between the Cerchi and the Donati—The Donati and Others of the Nera Faction Banished by the Advice of Dante Alighieri- Charles of Valois Sent by the Pope to Florence—The Florentines Suspect Him—Corso Donati and the Rest of the Nera Party Return to Florence—Veri Cerchi Flies—The Pope's Legate again in Florence- The City again Interdicted—New Disturbances—The Bianchi Banished—Dante Banished—Corso Donati Excites Fresh Troubles—The Pope's Legate Endeavors to Restore the Emigrants but does not Succeed—Great Fire in Florence.

The Exiles Attempt to Re-enter Florence, but are not Allowed to do so—The Companies of the People Restored—Restless Conduct of Corso Donati—The Ruin of Corso Donati—Corso Donati Accused and Condemned—Riot at the House of Corso—Death of Corso—His Character—Fruitless Attempt of the Emperor Henry against the Florentines-The Exiles are Restored to the City—The Citizens Place Themselves under the King of Naples for Five Years—War with Uguccione della Faggiuola—The Florentines Routed—Florence Withdraws herself from Subjection to King Robert, and Expels the Count Novello—Lando d'Agobbio—His Tyranny—His Departure.

War with Castruccio—Castruccio Marches against Prato and retires without Making any Attempt—The Exiles not being Allowed to Return, Endeavor to Enter the City by Force, and are Repulsed- Change in the Mode of Electing the Great Officers of State—The Squittini Established—The Florentines under Ramondo of Cardona are Routed by Castruccio at Altopascio—Treacherous Designs of Ramondo—The Florentines Give the Sovereignty of the City to Charles, Duke of Calabria, who Appoints the Duke of Athens for his Vicar—The Duke of Calabria Comes to Florence—The Emperor Louis of Bavaria Visits Italy—The Excitement he Produces—Death of Castruccio and of Charles Duke of Calabria—Reform of Government.

The Emperor at Rome—The Florentines Refuse to Purchase Lucca, and Repent of it—Enterprises of the Florentines—Conspiracy of the Bardi and the Frescobaldi—The Conspiracy Discovered and Checked—Maffeo da Marradi Appeases the Tumult—Lucca is purchased by the Florentines and Taken by the Pisans—The Duke of Athens at Florence—The Nobility Determine to Make him Prince of the City.

The Duke of Athens Requires to be Made Prince of Florence—The Signory Address the Duke upon the Subject—The Plebeians Proclaim him Prince of Florence for Life—Tyrannical Proceedings of the Duke—The City Disgusted with him—Conspiracies against the Duke—The Duke Discovers the Conspiracies, and Becomes Terrified—The City Rises against him—He is Besieged in the Palace—Measures Adopted by the Citizens for Reform of the Government—The Duke is Compelled to Withdraw from the City—Miserable Deaths of Guglielmo da Scesi and his Son—Departure of the Duke of Athens—His Character.

Many Cities and Territories, subject to the Florentines, Rebel—Prudent Conduct Adopted upon this Occasion—The City is Divided into Quarters—Disputes between thc Nobility and the People—The Bishop Endeavors to Reconcile them, but does not Succeed—The Government Reformed by the People—Riot of Andrea Strozzi—Serious Disagreements between the Nobility and the People—They Come to Arms, and the Nobility are Subdued—The Plague in Florence of which Boccaccio Speaks.

Book III

Reflections upon the Domestic Discords of Republics—A Parallel between the Discords of Rome and those of Florence—Emnities between the Families of the Ricci and the Albizzi—Uguccione de'Ricci Causes the Laws against the Ghibellines to be Renewed in Order to Injure the Albizzi—Piero degli Albizzi Derives Advantage from it—Origin of Admonitions and the Troubles which Result from them—Uguccione de' Ricci Moderates their Injustice—Difficulties Increase—Meeting of the Citizens—They Address the Signory—The Signory Attempt to Remedy the Evils.

The War of the Florentines against the Pope's Legate, and the Causes of it—League against the Pope—The Censures of the Pope Disregarded in Florence—The City is Divided into two Factions, the one of the Capitani di Parte, the Other of the Eight Commissioners of the War—Measures Adopted by the Guelfic Party against their Adversaries—The Guelfs Endeavor to Prevent Salvestro de' Medici from Being Chosen Gonfalonier—Salvestro de' Medici, Gonfalonier—His law against the Nobility, and in favor of the Ammoniti—The Collegi Disapprove of the Law—Salvestro Addresses the Council in its favor—The Law is Passed—Disturbances in Florence.

Contrary Measures Adopted by the Magistrates to Effect a Pacification—Luigi Guicciardini, the Gonfalonier, Entreats thc Magistrates ot the Arts to Endeavor to Pacify the People—Serious Riot Caused by the Plebeians—The Woollen Art—The Plebeians Assemble—The Speech of a Seditious Plebeian—Their Resolution Thereupon—The Signory Discover the Designs of the Plebeians—Measures Adopted to Counteract them.

Proceedings of the Plebeians—The Demand they Make of the Signory—They Insist that the Signory Leave the Palace—The Signory Leave the Palace—Michele di Lando, Gonfalonier—Complaints and Movement of the Plebeians against Michele di Lando—Michele di Lando Proceeds against the Plebeians and Reduces them to Order—Character of Michele di Lando.

New Regulations for the Elections of the Signory—Confusion in the City—Piero degli Albizzi and Other Citizens Condemned to Death—The Florentines Alarmed by the Approach of Charles of Durazzo—The Measures Adopted in Consequence Thereof—Insolent Conduct of Giorgio Scali—Benedetto Alberti—Giorgio Scali Beheaded.

Confusion and Riots in the City—Reform of Government in Opposition to the Plebeians—Injuries Done to those who Favored the Plebeians—Michete di Lando Banished—Benedetto Alberti Hated by the Signory—Fears Excited by the Coming of Louis of Anjou—the Florentines Purchase Arezzo—Benedetto Alberti Becomes Suspected and is Banished—His Discourse upon Leaving the City—Other Citizens Banished and Admonished—War with Giovanni Galeazzo, Duke of Milan.

Maso degli Albizzi—His Violence Excites the Anger of the People- They Have Recourse to Veri de' Medici—The Modesty of Veri—He Refuses to Assume the Dignity of Prince, and Appeases the People—Discourse of Veri to the Signory—The Banished Florentines Endeavor to Return—They Secretly Enter the City and Raise a Tumult—Some of them Slain, others Taken in the Church of St. Reparata—A Conspiracy of Exiles Supported by the Duke of Milan—The Conspiracy Discovered and the Parties Punished—Various Enterprises of thc Florentines—Taking of Pisa—War with the King of Naples—Acquisition of Cortona.

Book IV

License and Slavery, Peculiar Defects in Republican Governments—Application of this Reflection to the State of Florence—Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici Reestablishes the Authority of his Family—Filippo Visconti, Duke of Milan, Endeavors to Make Amicable Arrangements with the Florentines—Their Jealousy of him—Precautionary Measures Against him—War Declared—The Florentines are Routed by the Ducal Forces.

The Florentines Murmur against those who had been Advocates of the War—Rinaldo degli Albizzi Encourages the Citizens—Measures for the Prosecution of the War—Attempt of the Higher Classes to Deprive the Plebeians of their Share in the Government—Rinaldo degli Albizzi Addresses an Assembly of Citizens and Advises the Restoration of the Grandi—Niccolo da Uzzano Wishes to Have Giovanni de' Medici on their Side—Giovanni Disapproves the Advice of Rinaldo degli Albizzi.

Giovanni de' Medici Acquires the Favor of the People—Bravery of Biaggio del Melano—Baseness of Zanobi del Pino—The Florentines Obtain the Friendship of the Lord of Faenza—League of the Florentines with the Venetians—Origin of the Catasto—The Rich Citizens Discontented with It—Peace with the Duke of Milan—New Disturbances on Account of the Catasto.

Death of Giovanni de' Medici—His Character—Insurrection of Volterra—Volterra Returns to her Allegiance—Niccolo Fortebraccio Attacks the Lucchese—Diversity of Opinion upon the Lucchese War—War with Lucca—Astorre Gianni and Rinaldo degli Albizzi Appointed Commissaries—Violence of Astorre Gianni.

The Inhabitants of Seravezza Appeal to the Signory—Complaints against Rinaldo degli Albizzi—The Commissaries Changed—Filippo Brunelleschi Proposes to Submerge the Country about Lucca—Pagolo Guinigi asks Assistance of the Duke of Milan—The Duke sends Francesco Sforza—Pagolo Guinigi Expelled—The Florentines Routed by the Forces of the Duke—The Acquisitions of the Lucchese after the Victory—Conclusion of the War.

Cosmo de' Medici, his Character and Mode of Proceeding—The Greatness of Cosmo Excites the Jealousy of the Citizens—The Opinion of Niccolo da Uzzano—Scandalous Divisions of the Florentines—Death of Niccolo da Uzzano—Bernardo Guadagni, Gonfalonier, Adopts Measures against Cosmo—Cosmo Arrested in the Palace—He is Apprehensive of Attempts against his Life.

Cosmo is Banished to Padua—Rinaldo degli Albizzi Attempts to Restore the Nobility—New Disturbances Occasioned by Rinaldo degli Albizzi—Rinaldo takes Arms against the Signory—His Designs are Disconcerted—Pope Eugenius in Florence—He Endeavors to Reconcile the Parties—Cosmo is Recalled—Rinaldo and his Party Banished—Glorious Return of Cosmo.

Book V

The Vicissitudes of Empires—The State of Italy—The Military Factions of Sforza and Braccio—The Bracceschi and the Sforzeschi Attack the Pope, who is Expelled by the Romans—War between the Pope and the Duke of Milan—The Florentines and the Venetians Assist the Pope—Peace between the Pope and the Duke of Milan—Tyranny Practised by the party Favorable to the Medici.

Death of Giovanna lI—René of Anjou and Alfonso of Arragon Aspire to the Kingdom—Alfonso is Routed and Taken by the Genoese—Alfonso Being a Prisoner of the Duke of Milan, Obtains his Friendship—The Genoese Disgusted with the Duke of Milan—Divisions among the Genoese—The Genoese, by Means of Francesco Spinola, Expel the Ducal Governor—League against the Duke of Milan—Rinaldo degli Albizzi Advises him to Make War against the Florentines—Albizzi's Discourse—The Duke Adopts Measures Injurious to the Florentines—Niccolo Piccinino Appointed to Command the Ducal Forces—Preparations of the Florentines—Piccinino Routed before Barga.

The Florentines go to War with Lucca—Discourse of a Citizen of Lucca to Animate the Plebeians against the Florentines—The Lucchese Resolve to Defend Themselves—They are Assisted by the Duke of Milan—Treaty between the Florentines and Venetians—Francesco Sforza, Captain of the League, Refuses to Cross the Po in the Service of the Venetians and Returns to Tuscany—The Bad Faith of the Venetians toward the Florentines—Cosmo de' Medici at Venice—Peace between the Florentines and the Lucchese—The Florentines Effect a Reconciliation between the Pope and the Count di Poppi—The Pope Consecrates the Church of Santa Reparata—Council of Florence.

New Wars in Italy—Niccolo Piccinino, in Concert with the Duke of Milan, Deceives the Pope, and takes Many Places from the Church—Niccolo Attacks the Venetians—Fears and Precautions of the Florentines—The Venetians Request Assistance of the Florentines, and of Sforza—League against the Duke of Milan—The Florentines Resolve to Send the Count to Assist the Venetians—Neri di Gino Capponi at Venice—His Discourse to the Senate—Extreme Joy of the Venetians.

Francesco Sforza Marches to Assist the Venetians, and Relieves Verona-He Attempts to Relieve Brescia but Fails—The Venetians Routed by Piccinino upon the Lake of Garda—Piccinino Routed by Sforza; the Method of his Escape—Piccinino Surprises Verona—Description of Verona—Recovered by Sforza—The Duke of Milan Makes War against the Florentines—Apprehensions of the Florentines—Cardinal Vitelleschi their Enemy.

The Pope Imprisons the Cardinal and Assists the Florentines—Difference of Opinion between the Count and the Venetians Respecting the Management of the War. The Florentines Reconcile them—The Count Wishes to Go into Tuscany to Oppose Piccinino, but is Prevented by the Venetians—Niccolo Piccinino in Tuscany—He Takes Marradi, and Plunders the Neighborhood of Florence—Description of Marradi—Cowardice of Bartolomeo Orlandini—Brave Resistance of Castel San Niccolo—San Niccolo Surrenders—Piccinino Attempts to Take Cortona, but Fails.

Brescia Relieved by Sforza—His Other Victories—Piccinino is Recalled into Lombardy—He Endeavors to Bring the Florentines to an Engagement—He is Routed before Anghiari—Serious Disorders in the Camp of the Florentines after the Victory—Death of Rinaldo degli Albizzi—His Character—Neri Capponi Goes to Recover the Casentino—The Count di Poppi Surrenders—His Discourse upon Quitting his Possessions.

Book VI

Reflections on the Object of War and the Use of Victory—Niccolo Reinforces his Army—The Duke of Milan Endeavors to Recover the Services of Count Francesco Sforza—Suspicions of the Venetians—They Acquire Ravenna—The Florentines Purchase the Borgo San Sepolcro of the Pope—Piccinino Makes an Excursion During the Winter—The Count Besieged in his Camp before Martinengo—The Insolence of Niccolo Piccinini—The Duke in Revenge Makes Peace with the League—Sforza Assisted by the Florentines.

Discords of Florence—Jealousy Excited against Neri di Gino Capponi—Baldaccio d'Anghiari Murdered—Reform of Government in Favor of the Medici—Enterprises of Sforza and Piccinino—Death of Niccolo Piccinino—End of the War—Disturbances in Bologna—Annibale Bentivoglio Slain by Battista Canneschi, and the Latter by the People—Santi, Supposed to be the Son of Ercole Bentivoglio, is Called to Govern the City of Bologna—Discourse of Cosmo de' Medici to him—Perfidious Designs of the Duke of Milan against Sforza—General War in Italy—Losses of the Duke of Milan—The Duke has Recourse to the Count, Who Makes Peace with him—Offers of the Duke and the Venetians to the Count—The Venetians Furtively Deprive the Count of Cremona.

Death of Filippo Visconti, Duke of Milan—The Milanese Appoint Sforza their Captain—Milan Becomes a Republic—The Pope Endeavors to restore Peace to italy—The Venetians Oppose this Design—Alfonso Attacks the Florentines—The Neighborhood of Piombino Becomes the Principal Theatre of War—Scarcity in the Florentine Camp—Disorders Occur in the Neapolitan and Florentine Armies—Alfonso Sues for Peace and is Compelled to Retreat—Pavia Surrenders to the Count—Displeasure of the Milanese—The Count Besieges Caravaggio—The Venetians Endeavor to Relieve the Place—They are Routed by the Count before Caravaggio.

The Count's Successes—The Venetians Come to Terms with Him—Views of the Venetians—Indignation of the Milanese against the Count—Their Ambassador's Address to him—The Count's Moderation and Reply—The Count and the Milanese Prepare for War—Milanese Ambassadors at Venice—League of the Venetians and Milanese—The Count Dupes the Venetians and Milanese—He Applies for Assistance to the Florentines—Diversity of Opinions in Florence on the Subject—Neri di Gino Capponi Averse to Assisting the Count—Cosmo de' Medici Disposed to do so—The Florentines Send Ambassadors to the Count.

Prosecution of the War between the Count and the Milanese—The Milanese Reduced to Extremity—The People Rise against the Magistrates—Milan Surrenders to the Count—League between the New Duke of Milan and the Florentines, and between the King of Naples and the Venetians—Venetian and Neapolitan Ambassadors at Florence—Answer of Cosmo de' Medici to the Venetian Ambassador—Preparations of the Venetians and the King of Naples for the War—The Venetians Excite Disturbances in Bologna—Florence Prepares for War—The Emperor, Frederick III, at Florence—War in Lombardy between the Duke of Milan and the Venetians—Ferrando, Son of the King of Naples, Marches into Tuscany against the Florentines.

Conspiracy of Stefano Porcari against the Papal Government—The Conspirators Discovered and Punished—The Florentines Recover the places they had lost—Gherardo Gambacorti, Lord of Val di Bagno, Endeavors to Transfer his Territories to the King of Naples—Gallant Conduct of Antonio Gualandi, who Counteracts the Design of Gambacorti—René of Anjou is Called into Italy by the Florentines—René Returns to France—The Pope Endeavors to Restore Peace—Peace Proclaimed—Jacopo Piccinino Attacks the Siennese.

Christendom Alarmed by the Progress of the Turks—The Turks Routed before Belgrade—Description of a Remarkable Hurricane—War against the Genoese and Gismondo Malatesti—Genoa Submits to the King of France—Death of Alfonso King of Naples—Succeeded by his Son Ferrando—The Pope Designs to Give the Kingdom of Naples to His Nephew Picro Lodovico Borgia—Eulogy of Pius II—Disturbances in Genoa between John of Anjou and the Fregosi—The Fregosi Subdued—John Attacks the Kingdom of Naples—Ferrando King of Naples Routed—Ferrando reinstated—The Geneose Cast Off the French Yoke—John of Anjou Routed in the Kingdom of Naples.

Book VII

Connection of the Other Italian Governments with the History of Florence—Republics Always Disunited—Some Differences are Injurious; Others not so—The Kind of Dissensions Prevailing at Florence—Cosmo de' Medici and Neri Capponi Become Powerful by Dissimilar Means—Reform in the Election of Magistrates Favorable to Cosmo—Complaints of the Principal Citizens against the Reform in Elections—Lucca Pitti, Gonfalonier of Justice, Restrains the Imborsations by Force—Tyranny and Pride of Lucca Pitti and his Party—Palace of the Pitti—Death of Cosmo de' Medici—His Liberality and Magnificence—His Modesty—His Prudence—Sayings of Cosmo.

The Duke of Milan Becomes Lord of Genoa—The King of Naples and the Duke of Milan Endeavor to Secure their Dominions to their Heirs—Jacopo Piccinino Honorably Received at Milan, and Shortly afterward Murdered at Naples—Fruitless Endeavors of Pius II to Excite Christendom against the Turks—Death of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan—Perfidious Counsel Given to Piero de' Medici by Diotisalvi Neroni—Conspiracy of Diotisalvi and Others against Piero—Futile Attempts to Appease the Disorders—Public Spectacles—Projects of the Conspirators against Piero de' Medici—Niccolo Fedini Discloses to Piero the Plots of his Enemies.

Niccolo Soderini Drawn Gonfalonier of Justice—Great Hopes Excited in Consequence—The Two Parties Take Arms—The Fears of the Signory—Their Conduct with Regard to Piero—Piero's Reply to the Signory—Reform of Government in Favor of Piero de' Medici—Dispersion of his Enemies—Fall of Lucca Pitti—Letter of Agnolo Acciajuoli to Piero de' Medici—Piero's Answer—Designs of the Florentine Exiles—They Induce the Venetians to Make War on Florence.

War between the Venetians and the Florentines—Peace Reestablished—Death of Niccolo Soderini—His Character—Excesses in Florence—Various External Events from 1468 to 1471—Accession of Sixtus IV—His Character—Grief of Piero de' Medici for the Violence Committed in Florence—His Speech to the Principal Citizens—Plans of Piero de' Medici for the Restoration of Order—His Death and Character—Tommaso Soderini, a Citizen of Great Reputation, Declares Himself in Favor of the Medici—Disturbances at Prato Occasioned by Bernardo Nardi.

Bernardo Takes Possession of Prato, but Is Not Assisted by the Inhabitants—He Is Taken, and the Tumult Appeased—Corruption of Florence—The Duke of Milan in Florence—The Church of Santo Spirito Destroyed by Fire—The Rebellion of Volterra, and the Cause of It—Volterra Reduced to Obedience by Force, in Accordance with the Advice of Lorenzo de' Medici—Volterra Pillaged.

Origin of the Animosity between Sixtus IV and Lorenzo de' Medici—Carlo di Braccio da Perugia Attacks the Siennese—Carlo Retires by Desire of the Florentines—Conspiracy against Galeazzo, Duke of Milan—His Vices—He is Slain by the Conspirators—Their Deaths.


State of the Family of the Medici at Florence—Enmity of Sixtus IV toward Florence—Differences between the Family of the Pazzi and That of the Medici—Beginning of the Conspiracy of the Pazzi—Arrangements to Effect the Design of the Conspiracy—Giovan Batista da Montesecco is Sent to Florence—The Pope Joins the Conspiracy—The King of Naples Becomes a Party to it—Names of the Conspirators—The Conspirators Make Many Ineffectual Attempts to Kill Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici—Their Final Arrangement—Order of the Conspiracy.

Giuliano de' Medici Slain—Lorenzo Escapes—The Archbishop de Salviati Endeavors to Seize the Palace of the Signory—He is Taken and Hanged—The Enterprise of the Conspirators Entirely Fails—Manifestations of the Florentines in Favor of Lorenzo de' Medici—The Conspirators Punished—The Funeral of Giuliano—The Pope and the King of Naples Make War upon the Florentines—Florence Excommunicated—Speech of Lorenzo de' Medici to the Citizens of Florence.

The Florentines Prepare for War against the Pope—They Appeal to a Future Council—Papal and Neapolitan Movements against the Florentines—The Venetians Refuse to Assist the Florentines—Disturbances in Milan—Genoa Revolts from the Duke—Futile Endeavors to Effect Peace with the Pope—The Florentines Repulse their Enemies from the Territory of Pisa—They Attack the Papal States—The Papal Forces Routed upon the Borders of the Lake of Perugia.

The Duke of Calabria Routs the Florentine Army at Poggibonzi—Dismay in Florence on Account of the Defeat—Progress of the Duke of Calabria—The Florentines Wish for Peace—Lorenzo de' Medici Determines to Go to Naples to Treat with the King—Lodovico Sforza, Surnamed the Moor, and his Brothers, Recalled to Milan—Changes in the Government of that City in Consequence—The Genoese Take Serezana—Lorenzo de Medici Arrives at Naples—Peace Concluded with the King—The Pope and the Venetians Consent to the Peace—The Florentines in Fear of the Duke of Calabria—Enterprises of the Turks—They Take Otranto—The Florentines Reconciled with the Pope—Their Ambassadors at the Papal Court—The Pope's Reply to the Ambassadors—The King of Naples Restores to the Florentines All the Fortresses He Had Taken.

New Occasions of War in Italy—Differences between the Marquis of Ferrara and the Venetians—The King of Naples and the Florentines Attack the Papal States—The Pope's Defensive Arrangements—The Neapolitan Army Routed by the Papal Forces—Progress of the Venetians against the Marquis of Ferrara—The Pope Makes Peace, and Enters into a League against the Venetians—Operations of the League against the Venetians—The Venetians Routed at Bondeno—Their Losses—Disunion among the League—Lodovico Sforza Makes Peace with the Venetians—Ratified by the Other Parties.

Affairs of the Pope—He is Reconciled to Niccolo Vitelli—Discords between the Colonnesi and the Orsini—Various Events—The War of Serezana—Genoa Occupied by Her Archbishop—Death of Sixtus IV—Innoccnt VIII Elected—Agostino Fregoso Gives Serezana to the Bank of St. Giorgio—Account of the Bank of St. Giorgio—War with the Genoese for Serezana—Stratagem of the Florentines to Attack Pietra Santa—Difficulties and Final Surrender of Pietra Santa—The Lucchese Lay Claim to Pietra Santa—The City of L'Aquila Revolts against the King of Naples—War between Him and the Pope—The Florentines Take the King's Part—Peace between the Pope and the King.

The Pope Becomes Attached to the Florentines—The Genoese Seize Serezanello—They Are Routed by the Florentines—Serezana Surrenders-Genoa Submits to the Duke of Milan—War between the Venetians and the Dutch—Osimo Revolts from the Church—Count Girolamo Riario, Lord of Furli, Slain by a Conspiracy—Galeotto, Lord of Faenza, is Murdered by the Treachery of His Wife—The Government of the City Offered to the Florentines—Disturbances in Sienna—Death of Lorenzo de' Medici—His Eulogy—Establishment of His Family—Estates Bought by Lorenzo—His Anxiety for the Defence of Florence—His Taste for Arts and Literature—The University of Pisa—The Estimation of Lorenzo by Other Princes.